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2010.04.24 - NCM: Day 4

  • Jaynie Yang - Developmental locomotion
    • Post-natal maturation of locomotion is similar to other animals
    • motor adaptation of walking occurs when children are 1 yo
    • Children flex knee and hip together
    • Child crawling is a trotting behavior while adults tend to pace
  • Yuri Ivanenko - Obstacle avoidance in children
    • First independent steps
      • wide base of support, short steps
    • Obstacle avoidance in toddlers doesn't really exist.  They explore the obstacles with their feet.
    • Children might have a quadrupedal reflex system
    • High stepping in children may be because of an absolute foot clearance requirement
  • Erin Vasudevan - Learning locomotor behavior
    • Children under 6 are unable to learn certain components of a split belt task
      • Capable of learning temporal aspects, but not spatial
    • Inability to learn may be an immaturity of the cerebellar circuits
    • Slower learning may lead to better retention
  • EMG activity generalizes better than kinematics in M1
    • Neurons seem to be stable in representing stuff, i.e. neurons have changing uses
    • Is motor cortex input/output?
  • Sam Walcott - History dependent effects in muscle
    • Residual force enhancement
      • Stretch the muscle and then activate you get a larger force then if you just stretched the muscle
    • Force potentiation
      • Pulses of activation cause increasing pulse of force due to phosphorylation
    • You still get force when actin/myosin are no longer interacting
      • Force enhancement only occurs when titin is intact
  • Dinesh Pai - Muscle mass in musculoskeletal models
    • Use continuum models?
    • Effective inertia is often higher than what is modeled
  • Madu Venkadesan - How to throw accurately
    • Determine how small errors in release are sensitive to angle and velocity of release
  • Manoj Srinivasan - Energy optimality in locomotion
    • Work is proportional to ATP usage
    • Damper-actuator model gives you walking, running and weird gate.
    • Walking is good at slow speeds
    • Running is good at fast speeds
    • Leg should look like a spring
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