John Milton
 Inattention appears to "help" balance
 Mechanical timescales matter
 Stickbalancing appears to be tune to the edge of boundary
 Don't balance it upright, balance slightly offcenter
 Random walk with an optimal search
 Nonpredictive solution (Maybe stochastic?)
 Continuous control is too expensive
 Suggest a discontinuous "actandwait"
 Passive control
 Better off if you wait to cntrol until stability boundary reached
 Increased activation delay corresponds to better performance
 Energy vs Coenergy (How do these correspond to all of the stability studies?)
Bob Peterka
 Observable behavior
 Kinematics
 Ground reaction forces
 EMG response
 Muscle images
 ...neural recordings...
 Experimental and modeling approaches
 Musculoskeletal dynamics
 Sensor dynamics
 Controller
 Internal models
 Head vs Trunk (Thomas Mergner)
 Perception is not perfect
 Predictors
 Experiments
 Used a pseudorandom turning sequence to rotational perturbations
 Gain and phase of response to rotational perturbations
 Gain drops off at high frequency
 Phase leads at low frequency and lags at high frequency
 Four modes of control
 Active control
 Integrative control
 Fastacting control
 Load control
 Delayed proprioceptive feedback
 Positive force feedback (force control)
 Sensory integration feedback (weighted sensory information)
 Rapid response control (springs and dampers)
ValeroCuevas
Toro Okihara
 Stochastic resonance  does the shaking make things better?
 Perhaps the shaking helps?
 Nonlocality
 Need to look at components interacting instead of each individual component
Ami Radunskaya
 Delay differential equations
 Euler's method can be "exact" as long as the stepsize directly divides the delaylength
 dde23  lookup in matlab
 What about initial requirements on Laplace equations?

 is critically stable in standard springmassdamper
 b>q the system is stable in this delayed equation
 To find boundary of stability put in solutions of the form
 Characteristic Polynomial
 Lambda cannot have imaginary solutions with Re>0
 If lambda is purely imaginary:
Lena Ting  Postural control
 prepatory response (immediate / feedforward)
 shortlatency (stretch reflexes) 40 ms
 longlatency (automatic postural response) 100 ms
 decision (steps) 200 ms
