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09.08.2009: Lena Ting at Georgia State

Motor Intention VS Motor Implementation

  • How do we go from intention to implementation?
  • There are many different pathways to the same goal
  • Observing motor behaviors
    • Do we need a brain to stand/walk?
    • Physics provides framework, neural components shape the observed motion
  • Synergies are a grouping of neuro-muscular constraints for a particular task
  • Four variables can describe the neural command for standing balance: CoM position, velocity, acceleration and feedback delay.
  • Low-dimension variables mediate input-to-output control
  • Solutions are not necessarily energetically optimal
    • Optimization is dependent on the criteria selected for minimization.
  • More synergies are observed for people with "greater skill"
  • Synergies are unique to the individual as the "goal" is a moving target.  The goal might mean different things to different people.


  • What about inducing postural responses through visual feedback?  Doesn't affect APR, so outside of the time period we are studying.
  • Visual feedback, how does this affect synergies?  Same as above, doesn't affect APR.
  • Do the forelimbs and hindlimbs have similar synergies for cats?  Would like to check this out.
  • How do you get synergies? NMF